Over the past year, labour markets have been affected by the slowdown in global growth. This is all the more problematic because labour markets had not fully recovered from the global crisis that erupted in 2008: there is still a deficit of around 50 million jobs in comparison to the pre-crisis situation (Chapter 1). It is unlikely that the world economy will grow at a sufficient pace over the next couple of years to both close the existing jobs deficit and provide employment for the over 80 million people expected to enter the labour market during this period. The trends are especially worrying in Europe, where the unemployment rate has increased in nearly two-thirds of these countries since 2010; but labour market recovery has also stalled in other advanced economies, such as Japan and the United States. Elsewhere, employment gains have weakened in terms of the needs of a growing, better educated working-age population, as in China. And jobs deficits remain acute in much of the Arab region and Africa.